Shyamnagar Upazila

Shyamnagar Upazila (satkhira district) with an area of 1968.24 sq km, is bounded by kaliganj (Satkhira) and assasuni upazilas on the north, sundarbans and bay of bengal on the south, koyra and Assasuni upazilas on the east, west bengal of India on the west. Main rivers are raymangal, Kalindi, kobadak, Mother Kholpetua, Arpangachia, Malancha Hariabhanga and Chuna. South Talpatti Island at the estuary of the Hariabhanga is notable.

Shyamnagar (Town) consists of 5 mouzas and 13 villages. The area of the town is 10.76 sq km. The town has a population of 11021; male 52.36% and female 47.64%. The density of population is 1024 per sq km. Literacy rate among the town people is 37.3%. The town has three dakbungalows and a BDR Head Quarter.

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Administration Shyamnagar thana was turned into an upazila in 1982. It consists of 13 union parishads, 127 mouzas and 216 villages.

Archaeological heritage and relics Five domed Tenga Mosque at Banshipur (Mughal period), two big and four small domed Hammankhana at Banshipur (constructed by Raja Pratapaditya), Joseshwari Mandir (built by Raja Pratapaditya), Chanda Bhairab Mandir at Ishwaripur (a triangular temple, built during the Sena period), Govinda Dev Mandir at Gopalpur (Basanta Roy (uncle of Pratapaditya) built it in 1593), Jahajghata Durgah (Khanpur).

Historical events Once the capital of Raja Bikramaditya and Raja Pratapaditya was at Dhumghat. Later it was transferred to Ishwaripur. A battle between the Pak army and the freedom fighters was held at Gopalpur on 20 August 1971 in which fredom fighters Subedar Ilias Khan, Abul Kalam Azad, Abdul Kader and Abdul Jabbar were killed. On 12 September 1971 the Pak army conducted genocide at Harinagar in which 39 persons were killed and 2 wounded.

Marks of War of Liberation Mass killing site: Harinagar and Katkhali; memorial monument: Gopalpur and Harinagar.

Population 265004; male 50.46%, female 49.54%; Muslim 74.14%, Hindu 25.40%, Christian 0.06%, Buddhist 0.01% and others 0.39%; ethnic nationals: Munda (Buno) families 300.

Religious institutions Mosque 251, temple 98, church 1 and sacred place 2, most noted of which are Banshipur Sahi Mosque (Tenga Mosque), tomb of Nurullah Khan at Nurnagar, Joseshwari Mandir and Chanda Bhairab Mandir.

Literacy and educational institutions Average literacy 28.1%; male 38% and female 17.4%. Educational institutions: college 5, high school 28, madrasa 98, government primary school 96, non-government primary school 56, kindergarten 2, orphanage 4. Noted educational institutions: Nakipur Haricharan High School (1899), Nurnagar Ashalata High School (1955), Shyamnagar Mohsin College (1972).

Locally published newspapers and periodicals Ayan (Nurnagar) and Pratya(Shyamnagar).

Cultural organisations Rural club 82, public library 1, martyr memorial library 1, cinema hall 2, literary society 3, theatre group 4, theatre stage 1, circus party 1, women’s organisation 3.

Main occupations Agriculture 32.93%, agricultural labour 25.81%, wage labourer 6.21%, forestry 2.34%, fishing 5.5%, transport 1.61%, commerce 10.11%, service 3.38% and transport 12.11%.

Land use Total cultivable land 38552 hectares, fallow land 6257.79 hectares; single crop 23.8%, double crop 55.06% and treble crop land 21.14%.

Land control Among the peasants, 19% are landless, 30% small, 28% marginal, 16.5% intermediate and 6.5% rich; cultivable land per head 0.13 hectare.

Value of land The market value of the land of the first grade is approximately Tk 7000 per 0.01 hectare.

Main crops Paddy, jute, potato, linseed, sesame, pumpkin, mustard seed, kanchuand vegetables.

Extinct or nearly extinct crops Local varieties of paddy.

Fisheries, dairies, poultries Poultry 81, dairy 52, hatchery (poultry) 29.

Communication facilities Roads: pucca 67 km, semi pucca 35 km and mud road 811 km; waterways 73 nautical mile.

Traditional transports Palanquin, bullock cart and horse carriage. These means of transport are extinct or nearly extinct.

Manufactories Printing press 2, ice factory 4, saw mill 11 and lathe machine 4.

Cottage industries Weaving 51, goldsmith 18, blacksmith 39, potteries 4, wood work 200, bamboo work 70, fishing 300, baowali 400, moual 250.

Hats, bazars and fairs Hats and bazars are 42, most noted of which are Shyamnagar, Nawabeki, Bhetkhali, Harinagar, Munshiganj, Gabura and Nurnagar Bazar; fairs 6.

Main exports Paddy, jute and shrimp.

NGO activities Operationally important NGOs are brac, caritas, asa, Sushilan, Nakshi Kantha Mohila Unnayan Sangstha, Shyamnagar Mohila Attakarmasangsthan, Setu, Bharasa.

Health centres Upazila health complex 1, family planning centre 9.
[Mizanur Rahman, Banglapedia]

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